The Republic of Singapore is an island country and city-state at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula in Asia. Singapore is north of the equator. Its closest neighbors are Malaysia and Indonesia. About 5.40 million people live in Singapore, of which 3.31 million are citizens, and most of them (76%) are Chinese. In Tamil, an old Indian language, “Singaporean”, from which Singapore got its name, means “Lion City” commonly ruled by Sultans.
The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual and English serves as the nation’s lingua franca, while Malay is the national language. Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, politics, among others.
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